페이지 정보작성자 관리자 댓글 0건 조회 282회 작성일 14-04-07 03:04
Due to its ancient origin more than 1 billion years ago, the highly reduced plastid genomes of Plantae (e.g., plant chloroplasts) provide limited insights into the initial stages of endosymbiont genome reduction. The photosynthetic amoeba Paulinella provides a more useful model to study this process because its alpha-cyanobacterium derived plastid originated ∼60 MYA and the genome still contains about 1,000 genes. Here we compared and contrasted features associated with genome reduction due to primary endosymbiosis in Paulinella plastids and in marine, free-living strains of the picocyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus. Both types of genomes show gene inactivation, concerted evolution, and contraction of gene families that impact highly conserved single-copy phylogenetic markers in the plastid such as psbA, psbC, and psbD. Our data suggest that these photosystem II genes may provide misleading phylogenetic signal because each of the constituent Plantae lineages has likely undergone a different, independent series of events that led to their reduction to a single copy. This issue is most problematic for resolving basal Plantae relationships when differential plastid gene loss was presumably ongoing, as we observe in Paulinella species. Our work uncovers a key, previously unappreciated aspect of organelle genome reduction and demonstrates “work in progress” models such as Paulinella to be critical to gain a fuller understanding of algal and plant genome evolution.
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