페이지 정보작성자 관리자 댓글 0건 조회 715회 작성일 19-07-04 09:07
To examine how tributyltin (TBT), a model obesogen, affects the lipid metabolism in the marine rotifer Brachionus koreanus, we carried out life-cycle studies and determined the in vitro and in silico interactions of retinoid X receptor (RXR) with TBT, the transcriptional levels of RXR and lipid metabolic genes, and the fatty acid content. The lethal concentration 10% (LC10) was determined to be 5.12 μg/L TBT, and negative effects on ecologically relevant end points (e.g., decreased lifespan and fecundity) were detected at 5 μg/L TBT. On the basis of these findings, subsequent experiments were conducted below 1 μg/L TBT, which did not show any negative effects on ecologically relevant end points in B. koreanus. Nile red staining analysis showed that after exposure to 1 μg/L TBT, B. koreanus stored neutral lipids and had significantly increased transcriptional levels of RXR and lipid metabolism-related genes compared to the control. However, the content of total fatty acids did not significantly change at any exposure level. In the single fatty acids profile, a significant increase in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) 14:0 and 20:0 was observed, but the contents of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were significantly decreased. Also, a transactivation assay of TBT with RXR showed that TBT is an agonist of Bk-RXR with a similar fold-induction to the positive control. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TBT-modulated RXR signaling leads to increase in transcriptional levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and the synthesis of SFAs but decreases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Our findings support a wider taxonomic scope of lipid perturbation due to xenobiotic exposure that occurs via NRs in aquatic animals.
- 이전글Protective Role of Freshwater and Marine Rotifer Glutathione S-Transferase Sigma and Omega Isoforms Transformed into Heavy Metal-Exposed Escherichia coli 19.07.04
- 다음글Nanoplastic Ingestion Enhances Toxicity of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the Monogonont Rotifer Brachionus koreanus via Multixenobiotic Resistance (MXR) Disruption 18.10.04
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